The Ossetian language is one of the few Indo-European languages, has long been prevailing in the Caucasus. Under the influence of the Caucasian and Turkic languages, he has enriched the interesting phenomena, which are not in Russian language.
Phonological and phonetic system is characterized by 7 vowels (strong and weak) and 28 consonants (including microhartree and uvularia the sound Kh). The grammatical structure is agglutinative (in decline) and the inflection (conjugation). Nouns have the category of definiteness, number, and 9 cases. 4 numerals the category: quantitative, ordinal, dividing, fractions.
The peculiarities of morphology is the formation of plural by adding the suffix “t” and a possible alternation in the base.
The most common grammatical means, as in English, is affixation (suffixation to a greater extent than prefixation).
The system of the verb has kept the Iranian character. In particular, in the system times there are two bases — present and past-time — Dating back to ancient Iranian basis of the present and to ancient Iranian past participle passive voice respectively. Saved four mood: indicative, imperative, conditional and desirable. Also preserved the bulk of Iranian verbal prefixes (with linear preverb), which acquired additional spatial significance.
History of the study
The Foundation seinavalgusti research laid the memoirs and diaries of travelers of the XVIII century, which called for Ossetia at the time. Among them are the works of N. By Two, I. A. Guldenshtadt, J. Reineggs. The most significant contribution to the creation of source and theoretical base for ominously science was the work of “Journey to the Caucasus and Georgia”, the famous German orientalist J. von Klaproth, published in 1812. Von klaproth for the first time put forward the assumption about the continuity of the Ossetian and Alanian languages and identified Digor type of speech as a dialect of the Ossetian language, not as a separate language.
Significant contribution to the study of the Ossetian language introduced by the Russian researcher of Finnish origin Andreas Sjogren’s. He deeply studied the Ossetian language in his “tagaurian” form (iron dialect), he attached great importance to the study of the Digor dialect, archaic forms which Sjogren first installed. The main results of the research Sjogren were published in St. Petersburg in 1844.
The next stage of development of the Ossetian studies is associated with the name of V. F. Miller (1848-1913). In the writings of Miller (“Ossetian etudes”: 1881, 1882, 1887) permanently installed Iranian character of the Ossetian language and its place among Indo-European languages. They laid the scientific foundations of the history of the Ossetian language and established base of study in Ossetian folklore.
M. I. Abaev has published several papers about stress in the Ossetian language and an article on “a Unified literary language for all dialectical branches of the Ossetian people”. Abaev in this article in favour of the recognition of the common literary language for all Ossetians.
A great contribution to modern oceanavenue made his son V. I. Abaev. The range of his research covers virtually all aspects of language structure, in each of which he managed to reach a new level of description and systematization. Abievym it was suggested that the Ossetian division of the vowels in “strong” and “weak”. Abaev has established a dual Iranian-Caucasian nature of the Ossetian language, put forward the theory of “Caucasian substratum”.
Currently, the study of the Ossetian language continued on the basis of the North-Ossetian Institute of Humanities and social studies (COGSI) and the South-Ossetian scientific research Institute, as well as in specialized educational institutions (faculty of Ossetian Philology sogu and others).
Publishing on the Ossetian language
The first printed book in Ossetian language — “Elementary doctrine of man, wanting their books of divine Scripture” — was published by the Moscow printing house of the Synod in 1798.
In 1844 was published “the Ossetian grammar of Andreas Sjogren, in which was presented the project of the Ossetian alphabet on the basis of the civil Cyrillic alphabet. This alphabet was used in the Ossetian publishing until transfer to the Latin alphabet in the Soviet era (1923).
For all the XIX century Ossetian language were published 43 books, among them religious content (transferable) — 24, training — 13, ethnographic — 3, art — 3 (A. Kubalov “Æфхæрдты Хæсана”, B. Gribkov “Sakha рæсугъд”, K. Khetagurov “iron фæндыр”).
From 1901 to 1917, was released 41 the newspaper in the Ossetian language. It is noted the extension subjects: science, folklore, religion, drama, poetry, medicine, textbooks on the Ossetian language, prose, children’s literature, Philology, Ethnography, Economics, history. There were the first periodicals: Newspapers and magazines.
After the revolution and the civil war the publishing was resumed in 1921. Already since 1931 in the Ossetian language came out about 30 books a year. However, in the late 1940s, the planned gradual reduction of subject areas. Since 1960-ies was published only prose, academic literature on the Ossetian language, poetry, journalism, party documents, and folklore. This scope has continued to the present time, with the exception of party documents, they were replaced by other official publications.